Infectious Disease

What are Infectious Diseases?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are microscopic organisms that cause infectious disease. They can be passed from person to person, animal to animal, contaminated surface to contaminated surface, or insect to insect. Infectious diseases can also be spread if an infectious organism is consumed or exposed to.

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SYMPTOMS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE

The signs and symptoms of an infectious disease vary greatly, depending on the pathogen that caused the infection. Fever and fatigue are common symptoms, but infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe and sometimes life-threatening.

While some infectious diseases are treatable with at-home remedies and over-the-counter medications, others are more serious and require professional medical attention, including hospitalization.
Infectious disease symptoms vary depending on the type of infection.

Symptoms of influenza, for example, include:

• Fever \ Chills \ Congestion
• Fatigue
• Muscle aches and pains, as well as a headache
Other infectious diseases, such as Shigella, produce more severe symptoms, such as:

• Diarrhea with blood
• Vomiting \ Fever
• Shock Dehydration (lack of fluid)
An infectious disease can manifest itself in one or more ways. If you have any chronic (ongoing) symptoms or symptoms that get worse over time, you should see a doctor.

 

Causes

Bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses cause infectious diseases. Infections like strep throat, urinary tract infections, and tuberculosis are caused by bacteria. Many skin diseases, such as ringworm and athlete’s foot, are caused by fungi. Other fungi can infect the lungs and nervous system, resulting in more serious illnesses.

Malaria, an infectious disease that kills over 400,000 people each year, is caused by parasites. It is caused by a tiny parasite that is transmitted by mosquitos.

Other parasitic infections are caused by other parasites. Finally, viruses are a source of a variety of infectious diseases with a variety of health consequences. Viruses are responsible for the common cold, as well as AIDS.

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Viruses and Infectious Disease Treatment

The cause of an infectious disease determines how it is treated. Antibiotics are used to treat the majority of bacterial infections. These drugs either kill or prevent bacteria from reproducing.

Antibiotics can be administered orally (as a pill, capsule, or liquid) or intravenously (via an IV line, creams, or drops).
Treatments exist for a few viral infections, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and herpes zoster (shingles), but for the most part, treatment focuses on symptom relief.


Antifungal medications are used to treat fungal infections. They can be topical (creams) to treat infections like athlete’s foot or vaginal candidiasis, or systemic (medicines taken by mouth or through an intravenous line) to treat infections like athlete’s foot or vaginal candidiasis.

Your doctor may prescribe treatment based on the disease’s symptoms, such as fever, pain, dehydration, or breathing difficulties.

 

Prevention

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to avoiding all infectious diseases. People should, however, take the following precautions to reduce the risk of transmission:

Hands should be washed frequently, especially before and after preparing food and using the restroom.
When preparing a meal, keep all surfaces clean and avoid keeping perishable food at room temperature for too long.
If vaccinations are recommended, get them and keep them up to date.
Only take antibiotics if you have a prescription, and make sure you finish the entire course, even if your symptoms improve sooner.
Disinfect any rooms with a high bacterial concentration, such as the kitchen and bathroom.
Regular STI checks, the use of condoms, or complete abstinence can all help to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Personal items such as toothbrushes, combs, razor blades, drinking glasses, and kitchen utensils should not be shared.
When traveling or working while suffering from an infectious disease, listen to your doctor’s advice, as doing so could spread the infection to others.

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